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English Linguistics

Residual rhoticity

Residual (non-)rhoticity in (non-)native Englishes

We investigate directionality in cross-linguistic influence and the nature of structural and extra-linguistic factors when rhotic and non-rhotic systems come together in bilinguals and highly advanced L2 users of English. The ultimate aim is to come up with a model that unifies different spheres of phonological change (L2 and L3 acquisition, emergence of new varieties, L1 attrition).


Prof. Dr. Barış Kabak
Marie Himmel
Zeyu Li
Raphael Werner


Werner, R. (2019). An Experimental Investigation on Rhoticity and /r/-Sandhi in Devon English. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Julius-Maximilians-Universität, Würzburg, Germany.

Himmel, M.-C. (2019). The Production of Liquids in First Language Attrition and Second Language Acquisition. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Julius-Maximilians-Universität, Würzburg, Germany.

Li, Z. (2016). Sociolinguistic and Phonological Variables Determining the Degree of Rhoticity in Expanding Circle Englishes: The Case of Chinese English. (Unpublished master’s thesis.) Julius-Maximilians-Universität, Würzburg, Germany.

Li, Z. & B. Kabak (2017). Rhoticity in Chinese English: An experimental investigation on the realization of the variant (r) in an Expanding Circle variety. Alicante Journal of English Studies 30, 61-91.

Li, Z. & B. Kabak (2017). Which factors determine the degree of rhoticity in Expanding Circle Englishes: The case of Chinese English. Paper presented at 7th Biennial International Conference on the Linguistics of Contemporary English. Universidade de Vigo, Spain. 28-30.09.2017.

Himmel, M.-C. & B. Kabak (2016). Post-pubescent long-term exposure to non-rhoticity causes qualitative and quantitative changes in the realization of postvocalic /r/. Poster presented at the Biennial Conference on Laboratory Phonology (LabPhon15), Cornell University, Ithaca, United States. 13-16.07.2016.

Himmel, M.-C. & B. Kabak (2016). Adaptation or attrition? L1 rhoticity in American English-German late bilinguals. Presentation at the Third international conference on Language Attrition (ICLA3), University of Essex, United Kingdom. 05-07.07.2016.

Himmel, M.-C. & B. Kabak (2016). The loss and variable realization of /r/ in a rhotic language: Evidence from post-pubescent exposure to non-rhoticity. Paper presented at the 13th Old World Conference in Phonology, Budapest, Hungary. 13-16.01.2016.

Himmel, M.-C. & B. Kabak (2015). Rhoticity in Language Attrition: The case of American English-German Bilinguals. Paper presented at the 25th Annual Conference of the European Second Language Association (EUROSLA-25). Université d’Aix-Marseille, France. 26-29.08.2015.